Reference architecture IoT









Initial publishing of english version. Based on version 1.3 of the swedish version.

KNOWN issues:

  • internal links in “running text” need to be fixed.

  • bullet lists need to be fixed.

Who the material has been created for

Primarily for procurers of IoT systems in a municipal and regional context. The term procurer refers to anyone involved in technical, business and architectural aspects of IoT system procurement. The material can also be used to supplement and develop IoT systems, as well as to benchmark and evaluate existing IoT systems.

Can give suppliers a picture of the requirements that regions and municipalities may have for IoT systems in the future.

How the material is structured

A principles catalogue for those looking to acquire IoT solutions is available here IoT principles catalogue.

  1. For each principle, there should be one or more requirements that contribute to it.

  2. Most principles are related to EIRA, DIGG, SALAR’s “Utveckling i Digital tid” [Development in a digital age] or the like.

A requirements catalogue for those looking to acquire IoT solutions is available here IoT Requirements catalogue. Note: These requirements CANNOT be set directly in a procurement! They must be adjusted.

  1. Each requirement contributes to the fulfilment of one or more principles.

  2. For each requirement, there is an idea of how the delivery requirements for it can be verified.

Term definitions can be found here Term definitions for IoT

Images depicting how the principles and RefARK are interconnected are available here Visualisation of how RefARK’s principles are interconnected

Examples of how RefARK can be used are available here Examples of how RefARK can be used

How this material can be used

Situations when this material is appropriate to use

  1. The procurer needs to acquire an IoT system.

  2. The procurer purchases a vertical system (specific to an organisation) and wants to integrate it with the IoT system.

  3. The procurer buys sensors to be connected to the IoT system.

  4. The procurer develops an application to be connected to the IoT system.

  5. When developing architecture for IoT within the procurer’s organisation.

  6. To increase the procurer’s understanding of the IoT field.

  7. A supplier can use the material to understand how municipalities/regions will procure IoT solutions.

  8. Evaluation of supplier solutions

  9. Evaluate existing IoT solutions – see below for examples.

In a procurement situation

The material produced cannot be used directly in a procurement. It must be adjusted first. Before the material can be used in a procurement, the procurer must at least do the following:

  1. Fine-tune and adapt the requirements to the procurer’s situation

    1. Evaluate which requirements need to be added from elsewhere in the procurer’s organisation

    2. Evaluate which requirements should be formulated as SHALL requirements (cannot be evaluated) and SHOULD requirements (can be evaluated)

    3. SHOULD requirements are given a maximum score by which they contribute to one or more principles.

  2. Assess the importance of each principle in supplier solution evaluation.

Limitations of the material

The material does not address what happens between a sensor/actuator and an application of IoT.

NOTE: The material only addresses what is specific to IoT systems. It is expected that the procuring organisation has (or ensures that it has) a well-functioning IT environment, IT organisation and procurement organisation. A more detailed breakdown of requirements is available in the IoT Requirements catalogue.

How the material was developed

The material has been developed in cooperation between representatives of municipalities and regions. The material is based, for better or worse, on the knowledge that the participants in the working group were able to contribute. Suggestions for improvement are welcome. Please note that this material has been produced through the voluntary commitment of municipalities and regions who chose to contribute their knowledge and experience.

Relevant documentation

Reference architectures referred to by the working group

Reference architectures with breakdown of modules that may be of value to those who are procuring IoT systems. Among others, the following reference architectures are considered worth looking at by the working group:

·         ISO-IEC 30141-2018 pp. 44 and 48.

·         NPR 8284-2020 p. 32

·         DIN spec 91357 p. 12

The working group has no opinion as to which of the above standards is better or worse. All have something to contribute for those looking to procure an IoT system.

Reference documentation

Within the assignment, there is a collection of links to important documents/services

Swedish Local Fibre Alliance’s Robust Digital Infrastruktur [Robust digital infrastructure]

ENISA Good Practices for IoT and Smart Infrastructures Tool

ETSI Connecting Things



Atos Eindhoven


EU Context Broker